Materials Transactions Online

Materials Transactions, Vol.48 No.09 (2007) pp.2365-2369
© 2007 The Japan Institute of Metals

Substance Flow Analysis of Indium for Flat Panel Displays in Japan

Kenichi Nakajima1, Kazuyo Yokoyama1, Kazuko Nakano2 and Tetsuya Nagasaka1

1Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
2Organization for Research and Development of Innovative Science and Technology (ORDIST), Kansai University, Suita 564-8680, Japan

Substance flow analysis (SFA) of indium has been conducted in this study. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant issues for the development of an efficient indium recycling system by performing SFA of indium supplied for indium-tin oxide (ITO) processing as transparent electrodes, which accounts for 86.9% of the total indium demand. In this study, as part of the development of substance and material flow data, (1) data on the flow of indium was collected and reviewed, (2) the amount of dissipated indium associated with the production of flat-panel displays (FPDs) were estimated and (3) its environmental impact was also assessed.
The major conclusions are (a) 470 t-In is used in ITO for transparent electrodes, out of which 220 t-In is dissipated or potentially dissipated in Japan, and (b) 220 t-In of dissipated indium is equivalent to 11.4 TJ of energy consumption, 0.5 × 103 t of CO2 emissions, and 1.0 × 106 t of Total Materials Requirement (TMR).

(Received 2007/4/9; Accepted 2007/6/13; Published 2007/8/1)

Keywords: Material flow analysis, Substance flow analysis, Indium, Indium tin oxide, recycle

PDF(Free)PDF (Free) Table of ContentsTable of Contents


  1. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation: Stockpiling, <>, (2006/12/12).
  2. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry: Yearbook of Iron and Steel, Non-Ferrous Metals, and Fabricated Metals Statistics, (2005).
  3. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation: Material Flow of Mineral Resource, (in Japanese), (2005).
  4. Rare Metal Association: Rare Metals Shikihou, (in Japanese), (2005).
  5. M. Shimada, K. Ijima, Y. Sawatani, K. Nakajima, T. Nagasaka, T. Tsukihashi, Y. Moriguchi and K. Halada: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Ecomaterials, (2005), pp. 620–633.
  6. P. H. Brunner and H. Rechberger: Handbook of Material Flow Analysis, (The CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2003), pp. 1–159.
  7. M. Bertram, T. E. Graedel, H. Rechberger and S. Spatari: Ecological Economics 42 (2002) 43–57.
  8. H. Rechberger and T. E. Graedel: Ecological Economics 42 (2002) 59–72.
  9. S. Bringezu, H. Schutz, S. Steger and J. Baudisch: Ecological Economics 51 (2004) 97–124.
  10. A. M. Alfantazi and R. R. Moskalyk: Mineral Engineering 16 (2003) 687–694.
  11. Rare Metal Association: A List of Base Data for Selecting Seven Metals for National Reserves, <>, (2006/12/12).
  12. U.S. Geological Survey: Indium, <>, (2006/12/12).
  13. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization: An Advanced Study on Developing a Global Model for Recycling and Accumulating Waste Resources, (2005) 64.
  14. Arumu Publishing: ``Industrial Rare Metals 121 (in Japanese)'', (2005), 108–109.
  15. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation: ``Rare Metal Stockpiling Data Book (in Japanese)'', (2006), 24.
  16. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation: ``Material Flow of Mineral Resource 2005 (in Japanese)'', (2005), 145–148.
  17. H. Nishida, Monthly Display 2 (2002) 36–46.
  18. K. Nakajima, K. Yamamoto, K. Nakano, K. Kuroda, K. Halada and T. Nagasaka: Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan, 2 (2006), 341–346.
  19. K. Nakajima, K. Yokoyama, Y. Matsuno and Y. Nagasaka: ISIJ Journal 47 (2007) 510–515.
  20. National Institute for Materials Science: ``Estimation of CO2 Emission and Energy Consumption in Extraction of Metals'', NIMS-EMC Material Data for the Environment 1 (2004) 84–87.
  21. K. Halada, K. Ijima, N. Katagiri and T. Okura: J. Japan Inst. Metals 650 (2001) 564–57.
  22. Japan Patent Office, <> (2007/2/21).
  23. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry: ``Machinery Statistics'', <> (2006/12/12).
  24. K. Betsui: Fujitsu 52 (2001) 361–367.


© 2007 The Japan Institute of Metals
Comments to us :