The STM was invented by Binnig et al.(1) in 1981 at IBM Research Center. In order to overcome the defect that the STM can be used only conductive materials, the atomic force microscope (AFM) was invented by Binnig in cooperation with the University of Stanford. Both microscopes consist of the XYZ stage of piezo actuator that deforms by applying the voltage and very sharp probe is scanned in the X-Y direction to obtain the data. The microscopes based on this principle are called scanning probe microscopes (SPM). The most notable feature of the SPM is that the SPM can be used not only in air but also in liquid. Many types of the SPM are commonly available now. In the present paper, the application of SPM on observation of water film and water cluster is mainly discussed by using recent SPM research works of the author.
(Received October 21, 1998; In Final Form December 17, 1998)
Keywords: scanning probe microscope, water film, water cluster, surface potential, relative humidityPDF (Free) Table of Contents