日本金属学会誌

J. Japan Inst. Metals, Vol. 68, No. 1 (2004),
pp. 21-26

Gas Contamination Due to Milling Atmospheres of Mechanical Alloying and Its Effect on Impact Strength

Yuji Muramatsu1, Shuji Wanikawa2, Minoru Ohtaguchi2,, Hirokazu Okada2 and Fujio Abe2

1Advanced Engineering Services Co., Ltd., Space Development Division, Tsukuba 305-0032
2National Institute for Materials Science, Steel Research Center (SRC), Tsukuba 305-0047

Abstract:

This study seeks to clarify the effects of gas contamination from milling atmospheres of mechanical alloying (MA) on mechanical properties. An iron-based dispersion alloy of Fe--13Cr--3W--0.5Ti--0.5Y2O3 (mass%) was selected as the experimental material. We prepared MA powders with the same composition as the dispersion alloy by milling mixed powders in various atmospheres such as argon, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen and vacuum, and then made bulk alloys by grooved rolling the MA powders. For the MA powders, we examined included atmospheric elements and their releasing processes with heat treatments under vacuum. For the bulk alloys, we also examined high-temperature behaviors of residual atmospheric elements and their effect on impact strength as a function of heat treatment time at 923 K.
Experimental results showed that MA powder included some amount of atmospheric element that was unexpectedly difficult to remove with heat treatment. The contents of widely used argon and helium in MA powders, for example, were 130 and 5.3 mass ppm, and they were hard to remove even with treatments at 1323 K, which is considered the maximum allowable temperature. Therefore, most of these elements were introduced into bulk alloys as gas contamination. In contrast, nitrogen was effectively reduced with the treatment at 1323 K, while hydrogen could not be sufficiently removed. Residual argon and helium in bulk alloys formed bubbles at high temperatures and caused density decrease (swelling). On the other hand, hydrogen and nitrogen caused neither the formation of bubbles nor the swelling. Impact strength decreased with increased treatment time, and more remarkable decreases were observed in the alloys containing argon and hydrogen. We concluded that a proper milling atmosphere in MA for producing iron-based dispersion alloys applied to high-temperature materials was nitrogen.


(Received 2003/10/2)

Keywords:

mechanical alloying, particle dispersion alloy, milling atmosphere, gas contamination, gas releasing process, argon bubble, swelling, impact strength, embrittlement


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