Materials Transactions Online

Materials Transactions, Vol.58 No.02 (2017) pp.186-195
© 2017 The Japan Institute of Metals and Materials

Effects of Alloying Elements on Static Recrystallization Behavior of Work-Hardened Austenite of High Carbon Low Alloy Steel

Manabu Kubota1, Yukiko Kobayashi2, Kohsaku Ushioda3 and Jun Takahashi2

1Steel Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Amagasaki 660-0891, Japan
2Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Futtsu 293-8511, Japan
3Technical Development Bureau, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Futtsu 293-8511, Japan

Many studies have investigated the effect of alloying elements on the recrystallization behavior of work-hardened austenite. However, the recrystallization behavior of high carbon low alloy steel has not yet been systematically investigated. In this study, the effects of alloying elements (Al, Nb, V, Ti, and B) are examined by means of a double-hit compression test, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and atom probe tomography (APT) analysis. The following conclusions were obtained:

(1) When alloying elements are in solution, Nb and Ti have an equally strong effect on inhibiting recrystallization, followed by V.

(2) When the deformation and holding temperature becomes low, the recrystallization is significantly inhibited by adding 0.1% V.

(3) Fine particles were not observed by APT in the 0.1%V steel, which shows the strong inhibition effect on recrystallization. The solute V content measured by APT decreased as the holding time increased, and recrystallization commenced at the time when relatively coarse precipitates were formed.

This Paper was Originally Published in Japanese in J. Japan Inst. Met. Mater. 80 (2016) 620-629.


(Received 2016/09/28; Accepted 2016/11/29; Published 2017/01/25)

Keywords: recrystallization, low alloy steel, high carbon steel, ausforming, alloying element

PDF(member)PDF (member) PDF(organization)PDF (organization) Order DocumentOrder Document Table of ContentsTable of Contents


  1. I. Tamura: Tetsu-to-Hagané 52 (1966) 140-162.
  2. T. Maki, T. Furuhara, N. Tsuji, S. Morito, G. Miyamoto and A. Shibata: Tetsu-to-Hagané 100 (2014) 1062-1075.
  3. M. Ohmori: Journal of the Japan Society for Heat Treatment 35 (1995) 257-262.
  4. T. Tarui, S. Yamasaki, M. Tateyama, T. Takahashi and Y. Noguchi: CAMP-ISIJ 10 (1997) 1291.
  5. S. Yamasaki, T. Tarui and Y. Noguchi: CAMP-ISIJ 11 (1998) 1242.
  6. S. Yusa, T. Hara, K. Tsuzaki and T. Takahashi: CAMP-ISIJ 12 (1999) 1296.
  7. S. Terasaki, S. Sakashita, S. Takagi, Y. Kimura and T. Takahashi: CAMP-ISIJ 14 (2001) 1309.
  8. H. Hayakawa, S. Terasaki, T. Hara, K. Tsuzaki and S. Matsuoka: J. Jpn. Inst. Metals 66 (2002) 745-753.
  9. T. Sawai, Y. Kimura, K. Tsuzaki, E. Takeuchi and S. Matsuoka: Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Ser. A 68 (2002) 49-56.
  10. H. Hirukawa, Y. Furuya and S. Matsuoka: Tetsu-to-Hagané 91 (2005) 390-396.
  11. Y. Maehara, T. Kunitake and N. Fujino: Tetsu-to-Hagané 67 (1981) 362-371.
  12. L.J. Cuddy: Proc. Thermomechanical Processings of Microalloyed Austenite, TMS-AIME, New York, (1982), pp.129-140.
  13. F. Boratto, R. Barbosa, S. Yue and J.J. Jonas: Proc. of the 1st Conf. on Physical Metallurgy of Thermomechanical Processing of Steels and Other Metals (THERMEC-88), ISIJ, Tokyo, (1988), pp.383-390.
  14. S. Yamamoto, C. Ouchi and T. Osuka: Proc. Thermomechanical Processings of Microalloyed Austenite, TMS-AIME, New York, (1982), pp.613-637.
  15. A.A. Barani, F.Li.P. Romano, D. Ponge and D. Raabe: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 463 (2007) 138-146.
  16. A. Sugimoto, T. Tanaka, T. Ohki and Y. Wakikado: Transactions of JSSE 34 (1989) 38-43.
  17. M. Ayada, M. Yuga, N. Tsuji, Y. Saito and A. Yoneguchi: ISIJ Int. 38 (1998) 1022-1031.
  18. C. Ouch: Tetsu-to-Hagané 70 (1984) 2081-2089.
  19. G. Miyamoto, N. Takayama and T. Furuhara: Scr. Mater. 60 (2009) 1113-1116.
  20. G. Miyamoto, N. Iwata, N. Takayama and T. Furuhara: Acta Meter. 58 (2010) 6393-6403.
  21. G. Miyamoto, N. Iwata, N. Takayama and T. Furuhara: ISIJ Int. 51 (2011) 1174-1178.
  22. M. Kubota, K. Ushioda, G. Miyamoto and T. Furuhara: Scr. Mater. 112 (2016) 92-95.
  23. J. Takahashi, K. Kawakami, Y. Yamaguchi and M. Sugiyama: Ultramicroscopy 107 (2007) 744-749.
  24. M.K. Miller: Atom Probe Tomography: Analysis at the Atomic Level, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, (2000), p.174.
  25. K. Narita: Materia Japan 8 (1969) 49-57.
  26. R. Phillips, W.E. Duckworth and F.E.L. Copley: JISI 202 (1964) 593-600.
  27. J.W. Cahn: Acta Metall. 10 (1962) 789-798.
  28. J. Takahashi, J. Haga, K. Kawakami and K. Ushioda: Ultramicroscopy 159 (2015) 299-307.
  29. H. Sekine and T. Maruyama: Tetsu-to-Hagané 58 (1972) 1424-1437.
  30. I. Weiss and J.J. Jonas: Metall. Trans. A 10 (1979) 831-840.
  31. E. Nes, N. Ryun and O. Hunderi: Acta Metall. 33 (1985) 11-22.
  32. T. Nishizawa: Tetsu-to-Hagané 70 (1984) 1984-1992.
  33. M. Maki: The 161st-162nd Nishiyama Memorial Seminar, ISIJ, Tokyo, (1996) pp.1-27.


© 2017 The Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Comments to us :