Materials Transactions Online

Materials Transactions, Vol.57 No.12 (2016) pp.2065-2071
© 2016 The Japan Institute of Metals and Materials

Cell Activity on Type 316L Stainless Steel with Self-Organized Nanopores Formed by Anodic Polarization

Sayaka Miyabe1, Takashi Suehiro1, Yushi Fujinaga1, Hiroaki Tsuchiya1, Sachiko Hiromoto2 and Shinji Fujimoto1

1Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan
2Corrosion Property Group, RCSM, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Japan

In this study, we evaluated the osseoconductivity of Type 316L stainless steel with self-organized nanopores of three different average diameters (26, 90, and 177 nm), formed by anodic polarization. The proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and morphology of MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cells, cultured on the self-organized nanopores were evaluated. The cell densities on samples with the nanopores were higher than those on mechanically finished surfaces that were mirror-polished or ground with #2000 SiC paper. In particular, the highest cell density and alkaline phosphatase activity were obtained on the nanoporous sample with the smallest diameter of 26 nm. Cells on the samples with 26 nm nanopores extended further and spread more filopodia compared with cells on samples with the other surface morphologies. Therefore, we concluded that self-organized nanopores with an optimal diameter (e.g., 26 nm) on Type 316L stainless steel could enhance long-term cell activity.


(Received 2016/06/24; Accepted 2016/10/05; Published 2016/11/25)

Keywords: nanopores, Type 316L stainless steels, biomaterials, anodic polarization, osteoblast, osseoconductivity

PDF(member)PDF (member) PDF(organization)PDF (organization) Order DocumentOrder Document Table of ContentsTable of Contents


  1. R.P. Welsh, R.M. Pilliar and I. Macnab: J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 53 (1971) 963-977.
  2. R.J. Friedman, Y.H. An, J. Ming, R.A. Draughn and T.W. Bauer: J. Orthop. Res. 14 (1996) 455-464.
  3. J.W. Vehof, M.T. Haus, A.E. de Ruijter, P.H. Spauwen and J.A. Jansen: Clin. Oral Implants Res. 13 (2002) 94-102.
  4. H. Kienapfel, C. Sprey, A. Wilke and P. Griss: J. Arthroplasty 14 (1999) 355-368.
  5. K. von der Mark, J. Park, S. Bauer and P. Schmuki: Cell Tissue Res. 339 (2010) 131-153.
  6. R.G. Flemming, C.J. Murphy, G.A. Abrams, S.L. Goodman and P.F. Nealey: Biomaterials 20 (1999) 573-588.
  7. M. Yoshinari, K. Matsuzaka, T. Inoue, Y. Oda and M. Shimono: J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 65A (2003) 359-368.
  8. M. Arnold, E.A. Cavalcanti-Adam, R. Glass, J. Blümmel, W. Eck, M. Kantlehner, H. Kessler and J.P. Spatz: ChemPhysChem 5 (2004) 383-388.
  9. M.J. Dalby, D. McCloy, M. Robertson, H. Agheli, D. Sutheriand, S. Affrossman and R.O.C. Oreffo: Biomaterials 27 (2006) 2980-2987.
  10. K. Anselme, P. Davidson, A.M. Popa, M. Giazzon, M. Liley and L. Ploux: Acta Biomater. 6 (2010) 3824-3846.
  11. F. Keller, M.S. Hunter and D.L. Robinson: J. Electrochem. Soc. 100 (1953) 411-419.
  12. H. Masuda and K. Fukuda: Science 268 (1995) 1466-1468.
  13. H. Masuda and M. Satoh: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1996) L126.
  14. D. Gong, C.A. Grimes, O.K. Varghese, W. Hu, R.S. Singh, Z. Chen and E.C. Dickey: J. Mater. Res. 16 (2001) 3331-3334.
  15. H. Tsuchiya, J.M. Macak, L. Taveira, E. Balaur, A. Ghicov, K. Sirotna and P. Schmuk: Electrochem. Commun. 7 (2005) 576-580.
  16. S.H. Chung, S.J. Son and J. Min: Nanotechnology 21 (2010) 125104.
  17. J. Park, S. Bauer, K. von der Mark and P. Schmuki: Nano Lett. 7 (2007) 1686-1691.
  18. J. Park, S. Bauer, K.A. Schlegel, F.W. Neukam, K. von der Mark and P. Schmuki: Small 5 (2009) 666-671.
  19. K.C. Popat, L. Leoni, C.A. Grimes and T.A. Desai: Biomaterials 28 (2007) 3188-3197.
  20. K.S. Brammer, S. Oh, C.J. Cobb, L.M. Bjursten, H. von der Heyde and S. Jin: Acta Biomater. 5 (2009) 3215-3223.
  21. S. Bauer, J. Park, K. von der Mark and P. Schmuki: Acta Biomater. 4 (2008) 1576-1582.
  22. A. Cigada, G. De Sanctis, A.M. Gatti, A. Roos and D. Zaffe: J. Appl. Biomater. 4 (1993) 39-46.
  23. L. Montanaro, M. Cervellati, D. Campoccia and C.R. Arciola: J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 17 (2006) 267-275.
  24. H. Kenar, E. Akman, E. Kacar, A. Demir, H. Park, H. Abdul-Khaliq, C. Aktas and E. Karaoz: Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 108 (2013) 305-312.
  25. H. Zhang, J. Han, Y. Sun, Y. Huang and M. Zhou: Mater. Sci. Eng. C 56 (2015) 22-29.
  26. A. Roguska, S. Hiromoto, A. Yamamoto, M.J. Wozniak, M. Pisarek and M. Lewandowska: Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 (2011) 5037-5045.
  27. H. Tsuchiya, T. Suzumura, Y. Terada and S. Fujimoto: Electrochim. Acta 82 (2012) 333-338.
  28. S. Ni, L. Sun, B. Ercan, L. Liu, K. Ziemer and T.J. Webster: J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B 102 (2014) 1297-1303.
  29. H.A. Pan, J.Y. Liang, Y.C. Hung, C.H. Lee, J.C. Chiou and G.S. Huang: Biomaterials 34 (2013) 841-853.
  30. Y.C. Tang, S. Katsuma, S. Fujimoto and S. Hiromoto: Acta Biomater. 2 (2006) 709-715.
  31. K. Alvarez, S.H. Hyun, S. Fujimoto and H. Nakajima: J. Mater. Sci. 19 (2008) 3385-3397.
  32. K. Alvarez, S.H. Hyun, H. Tsuchiya, S. Fujimoto and H. Nakajima: Corros. Sci. 50 (2008) 186-193.
  33. K. Doi, S. Miyabe and S. Fujimoto: Mater. Trans 55 (2014) 1890-1894.
  34. J.W. Park, Y.J. Kim, J.H. Jang and H. Song: Clin. Oral Implants Res. 21 (2010) 1278-1287.
  35. H.J. Moon, Y.P. Yun, C.W. Han, M.S. Kim, S.E. Kim, M.S. Bae, G.T. Kim, Y.S. Choi, E.H. Hwang, J.W. Lee, J.M. Lee, C.H. Lee, D.S. Kim and I.K. Kwon: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 413 (2011) 194-200.
  36. H. Sun, C. Wu, K. Dai, J. Chang and T. Tang: Biomaterials 27 (2006) 5651-5657.
  37. J.H. Lee and K.J. McLeod: Bioelectromagnetics 21 (2000) 129-136.
  38. F. Martin, D. Del Frari, J. Cousty and C. Bataillon: Electrochim. Acta 54 (2009) 3086-3091.
  39. Y. C. Tang and S. Fujimoto: Proceedings of the 52th Japan Conference on Materials and Environments (2005) pp. 89-92.
  40. M. Laitinen, T. Halttunen, L. Jortikka, O. Teronen, T. Sorsa and T.S. Lindholm: Life Sci. 64 (1999) 847-858.
  41. E.A. Cavalcanti-Adam, D. Aydin, V.C. Hirschfeld-Warneken and J.P. Spatz: HFSP J. 2 (2008) 276-285.
  42. M. Arnold, V.C. Hirschfeld-Warneken, T. Lohmüller, P. Heil, J. Blummel, E.A. Cavalcanti-Adam, M. Lopez-Garcia, P. Walther, H. Kessler, B. Geiger and J.P. Spatz: Nano Lett. 8 (2008) 2063-2069.
  43. F.G. Giancotti: Cell 4 (2003) 149-151.
  44. F.G. Giancotti and E. Ruoslahti: Science 285 (1999) 1028-1033.
  45. J. Takagi, B.M. Petre, T. Walz and T.A. Springer: Cell 110 (2002) 599-611.


© 2016 The Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Comments to us :