Materials Transactions Online

Materials Transactions, Vol.46 No.11 (2005) pp.2461-2466
© 2005 The Japan Institute of Metals

Empirical Equations for Bubble Formation Frequency from Downward-Facing Nozzle with and without Rotating Flow Effects

Tomoya Goda1, Manabu Iguchi2, Yasushi Sasaki3 and Hiromichi Kiuchi2

1Graduate Student, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan
2Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan
3Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan

Bubble formation from a downward-facing single-hole nozzle immersed in a still circular water bath has been observed with a high-speed video. An empirical equation is derived for the frequency of bubble formation, fB0, as a function of gas flow rate Qg, the inner and outer diameters of the nozzle, dni and dno, the acceleration due to gravity, g, and the physical properties of fluids. A cross-flow is imposed on the nozzle by rotating the bath around its vertical axis. The frequency of bubble formation in the presence of the rotating flow, fB, is predicted using fB0 and the rotating flow velocity, vθ.

(Received 2005/6/20; Accepted 2005/9/20; Published 2005/11/15)

Keywords: steelmaking, gas injection, top lance, bubble frequency, rotating flow, single-hole nozzle

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